CLE: 2010: International Ethical Issues in Times of Conflict: Just War - Afganistan Iraq and North Korea

Dublin Core

Title

CLE: 2010: International Ethical Issues in Times of Conflict: Just War - Afganistan Iraq and North Korea

Creator

Robert L. Summers

Publisher

St. Mary's University School of Law San Antonio Texas Alumni Homecoming, St. Mary's University School of Law Alumni Homecoming

Date

2010-03-12

Relation

St. Mary's University School of Law Alumni Homecoming

Format

RFC3778

Language

English, en-US

Type

Text

Identifier

STMU_HomecomingCLE2010Summers

PDF Search

Text

-

~

IVvtertl'vC!Hotl'vCIL etV!l.ce~L Issues
LVv Ti.Vtttts of CoVvfLLct:
just WC!r- AfgV!C!VvLStC!V~-,
lre~q, lrC!Vv § NortV! 1<-oree~

-

Professor Robert L . Summers, Jr.
B.A., J.D., M.S.L.S., M.A./IR, C.A.I.A. (cand.)

I

IV~-ttYV~-CitLOV~-C!L ctltl~cs: IS.SIAt.S ~~~~­

T~VlA.eS

I

of COlli-fl~ct

• Introduction: Issues
• Relationships: I nternational Law/ United
Nations Charter & Just War/ Bellum Justum
-

International Peace & Security (IP & S)
Measures Less Than Force to Preserve I P & S
Use of Armed Force to Restore IP & S
Merger of Law & Ethics
Applications: Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, North
Korea, Somalia & Yemen

I V~-tei'"\II..C!t~o~~~-C!L HV!~cs: ls.s~Aes ~~~~­

rtVJA.e.s of co~~~-fL~t

-

IV\,tevll\,ettLoii\,CIL 5tV!Lcs: Issues LV\,

Ttvvw; of Coll\,fLi.ct
• Captured Taliban

-

tll\,teYV\,Cihoii\,Cl L Sthi.cs : tssues LV\,

Ti.vvt.es

of coll\,fLi.ct

• Marines in Afghanistan
~-~

(11\,tevii\,CltLoii\,ClL 5thi.cs: Issues i.V\,

Ti.vvt.es of coll\,fLi.ct
• Hamid Karzai

lll\,tenr"Clt~OII\,Cl L RV!~c.<;: IS.S.V<.eS. ~11\,

TLvu.es; of C-ol/\,fl~ct
• Baghdad Burns

ll/\,tet%ettLoi/\,Cl L a:V!~cs,: IS.sV<.es LV\,

TLvu.es, of C-ol/\,flLct
• Military in Iraq

ll/\,tet%CltLoi/\,ClL etlt!Lcs.: IS.SV<.es. ~11\,

nvu.es. of C-oil\,flLct

-

-

-

1
V\-teYV\-CihoV\-CI L E;tltlLcs: rss~Aes LV\TLVJAes of CoV\-flLct
• Leaving Basra

I
I

. I

IV\-tevV\-II!tLoV\-CIL etlt!Lcs: lss~Aes LV\-

Ti.VJAes

of CoV\-flLct

• Bushehr Nuclear Plant in Iran

IV\-teYV\-CitLOV\-CIL etlt\Lcs: ISSIAeS LV\TLVV~.es

of CoV\-flLct

• Iranian Technician working at Isfahan
Uranium Conversion Facilities

IV\-teYV\-ClHDV\-CIL R11Lcs: Issues LV\T~V1Aes of CoV\-fL~ct
• Iranian President Ahmadinejad

IV\-terV\-CitLoV\-Cll 5ti1Lcs: Issues LV\,
TLVV~.es of CoV\-fLLct
• Iranian Revolutionary Guard

IV\-terV\-Clt~OV\-Cll StV!Lcs: Issues LV\TLVV~.es

of CoV\-fLLct

• North Korea's Yongbyon Nuclear
Reactor

-

111\,teYII\,Clt~oll\,aL 8tV1~cs:

Issues ~11\,

T~V'Aes of C-oll\,fL~c.t

• Kim Jong II Monument

lll\,teyll\,li!hoii\,ClL 5t!tl~cs: Issues ~11\,

nV'Aes

of C,oll\,fLLct

lll\,teYII\,li!tLOII\,Cl L 5tV1~cs.: rs.sues ~11\,
T~V'Aes. of C-oll\,fLL-ct
• North Korean Military



\

1
V\..teYJI\,IAt~oV\..IA L stn~cs: Issues
Ti.VV~.es

LV\..

of C.oV\..fLLct

1--

• U.N. Charter Art. 1.1:
-"Maintain international peace & security.. "
- "Collective measures for the prevention
and removal of threats to the peace ... "
-"Suppression of acts of aggression and
other breaches of the peace..."
-"Settlement of international disputes or
situations which might lead to a breach of
the peace" by "peaceful means..."

stV!Lc.s: Issues
of C.oV\..fLLc.t

IV\..terV\..IAtLOV\..IAL
Ti.VV~.es

~V\..

• U.N. Charter Art. 1.2
-"To develop friendly relations among
nations based on respect for the principle
of equal rights and self determination of
peoples ..."
-"and to take other appropriate measures
to strengthen universal peace."

-

stV!Lc.s: Issues LV\..
TLVV~.es of C.oV\..fLLc.t

IV\..teYV\..IAtLOV\..ClL

• U.N. Charter Art. 1.3:
-"To achieve international cooperation in
promoting and encouraging respect for
human rights and fundamental
freedoms... "
- "for all without distinction as t o race, sex,
language or religion .... "

-

-

/11\,teYII\,Cit~Oii\,CIL HV1~c..s:

TLV~A.es.

iS.S.tA.eS.

~11\,

of C-oil\,fLLct

I- -

• • U.N. Charter Art. 2.3:
-"All members shall settle their disputes by
peaceful methods in such a manner that
international peace and security, and
j ustice, are not endangered."

HV1Lc.s.: IS.S.tA.ts. Lil\,
of C-oil\,fLi.c.t

I 11\,teYII\,Cihoii\,CIL

Ti.V~A.es.

' • U.N. Charter Art. 2.4:
-"All members shall refrain in their
international relations from the threat or
use of force against the territorial
integrity or political independence of any
state, or in any manner inconsistent with
the Purposes of the United Nations."

I
I

lil\,teYII\,Citi.oil\,crL HV1i.cs.: IS.S. tA.eS. i,tA,
T~V~A.es. of C-oil\,fLi.c.t

-- ----------------------------------1
• U.N. Charter Art. 2.7:

-The U.N. may not "intervene in matters
which are essentially within the domestic
jurisdiction of any state .... but this
principle shall not prejudice the
application of (collecti ve) enforcement
measures under Chapter VII" .

IV~..terV~..Clt~OVI..ClL etV!Lcs :

-

Issues LVI..

T~liVles of CoV~..fL~ct

• U.N. Charter Art. 24.1:
- "The members confer upon the Security
Council the primary responsibility for
international peace and security... "

I V~..terV~..Clt~OVI..ClL etV!Lcs: Issues LVI..

:
I

T~liVles of CoV~..fL~ct
• U.N. Charter Art. 25:
-"The members of the U.N. agree to
accept and carry out the decisions of the
Security Council. .. "

IVI..terV~..CltLoV~..ClL etV!Lcs: Issues LVI..

TLVVtes

--

of CoV~..fLi.ct

• U.N. Charter-Application &
Enforcement of PIL via Dispute
Resolution Methods:

-

-

I

I

- Peaceful Non-Binding Methods
- Peaceful Binding Methods
- Non-Peaceful Binding Methods

IV\-tei'V\.C!tLoV\,Cl L ct~Lcs: tssl-{es LV\,
TLVV~.es of Goll\,fLLc.t

I
1---

• Application and Enforcement of PIL
• U.N. Charter-Art. 33: Peaceful Non-Binding
Dispute Resolution Methods:
-Inquiry
- Negotiation
- Mediation
- (Good Offices (QL)]
- Conciliation
- Combination of Methods

I V\,te v-V\,Clt~OV\,CI L 5t~Lcs: ls.s.ues. LV\,
Tt-VV~.es.

of GoV\,flLct

r-·
• Application and Enforcement of PIL:
• U.N. Charter Art. 33: Peaceful Binding
Methods:
-Arbitration
-Adjudication-International Courts

IV\,tei%CltLoii\,CIL 5t~ ~cs : tss.L,{es LV\,
TLVV~.es

-

of coll\,fLLct

, • Application & Enforcement of PIL
-U.N. Charter 33: Other methods
• "Resort to regional agencies or
arrangements" (e.g. NATO/Kosovo) or
• "Other peaceful means of (member states]
choice"

I

I

-

r ~~~,teYII\,/i!tLOII\,Ii!L et!tt ~cs: ISStAes ~~~~,

-r~V\A_es

of

co~~~,fLLct

-

• Application & Enforcement of PIL: U.N.
Charter, Chapter VII- U.N. Security
Council & Collective Self Defense
- Art 39 : IP & S Determination
- Art 40: Non-Prejudicial "Provisional
Measures"
- Art 41: Economic Sanctions
- Art 42: Armed Force & Proportionality

ls.stAes.
TLV\A_es. of co~~~,fLLct

l~~~,teYII\,/i!ho~~~,li!L etV\Lcs.:

L~~~,

' • Application & Enforcement of PIL: U.N.
Charter, Chapter VII-U.N. Security and
Self Defense
-Art. 51 : Member N.S.s' Right of Unilateral
or Collective Self Defense in response to
an "armed attack"
- Response must be proportional
-U.N. Security Council prerogatives

-

l ~~~,ter~~~,li!tLo~~~,li!L et!tt~cs. :

-

rsstAes.

TLV\A_es of co~~~,fLLct
• Map of Afghanistan

-

!,~~~,

f V\,temGlHo~~~,Gl L stV1~cs.:

T~111A.es

lss.tAes

~~~~,

of c.o~~~,fl~ct

• U.N. Charter Chapter VII: U.N.S.C.
Resolution 1368 (09/12/01) re:
Afghanistan
-The UNSC "Expresses its readiness
to take all necessary steps to
respond to the terrorist attacks of 11
September 2001, and to combat all
forms of terrorism, in accordance to
its responsibilities under the Charter
of the United Nations."

f~~~,ter~~~,GlHOV\,Gl L HV1~cs.: IS.S.tAes. ~~~~,

nii\A.es of C.0111,fl~ct
• North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Charter Article V: Collective Self-Defense

I
I

- " The Parties agree that an armed attack
against one or more of them••. shall be
considered an attack against them all ...
- each of them, in the exercise of right of
individual or collective self-defense
recognized by Article 51 of the Charter of
the United Nations, will assist the Party...
- taking ... such action as it deems necessary
,
including the use of armed force, to
restore and maintain the peace... *

I

i

(11\,teYV\,GlhOV\,Gl L f;tV,~s,: ISS.1Ae5. ~V\,

n ii\A.eS.

of C.oV\,flLct

• Organization of American States (OAS)
Charter Art. 28: Collective Security
-"Every action of aggression by a state
against the territorial integrity or the
inviolability of the territory or against the
sovereignty or political independence of an
American State shall be considered an act
of aggression against the other American
States."

-

I~Ater~AClho~AClL stlt\Lcs: ISS~Ae.s LIA

TL111A.es of Co~AfLLct
"' "'o"'n"'g"ress"""""to"'n"'ar-ATitl'IOfiZatlon tor the OSe-of1111ili"'ta"'
•-,C'
'
1
ry,------l

-

Force (AUMF) (Pub. L. 107-40, 115 Stat. 225, Sept.

18, 2001))
-"The President is authorized to use all
necessary and a ppropriate force against
those natio ns, orgamzations1 or persons he
determines planned, authonzed,
committed, or aided the terrorist attack
that occurred on 09/11/01, or harbored
such organizations, in order to prevent any
future acts of international te rrorism
against the United States by such nations,
organizat ions o r persons."

I

IV\.temClhOIACll 5tV!Lcs: lsstAes LIA

TL111A.es of Co ~AfLLct

I--

• Map of Iraq

·0: . --

__:~·~· ~·~

~ ~FNA

v:. (

MoW

. r •. . . . .

;.,~cu..

-~~~

~

tn .,rJ

K----···:=~~fu_:"·.
.......
·,
.............
~ A UCI

A. A AtH A

N&o.91....
u-.o~~

:

~

~,..~~·~·
~.

I~AterV\.CltLo~AC! L stltll.cs: I.SstAes LIA

TL111A.es. of CoV\.flLct
1--

• United Nations Security Council Resolution
661 (1990): Chapter VII Economic Pre-War
Sanctions against I raq (First Gulf War)

-

-

- All states may not import products originating in
I raq or Kuwait or products being sold by their
nationals.
- No state shall make available funds for
commercial, industrial or public utility use to the
Government of Iraq. Exception: funds for medical
and humanitarian use.

1V~-te vV~-C!t~OVI-C! L Hl-1 ~c.s : 1 V<.e.s ~V\­
.s.s

T~VlAe.s

-

of CoL~~-fL~ct

• United Nations Security Council Resolution 687
(1991): Chapter VII Iraqi Post-War Sanctions
- Iraq shall destroy or remove all chemical and biologiCal
weapons and all stocks of agents.
- Iraq shall destroy or remove all ballistic missiles wittl a range
greater than 150 Kilometers.
- Iraq shall unconditionally agree not to acquire or develop
nuclear weapons or undertake any research or development
o f such weapons.
- The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) shall carry
out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq's nuclear capabilities
based on Iraq's declaration.
- Economic Sanctions from UNSCR 661 are still in effect for all
products except foodstuffs .

I V~-te vV~-C!HOV~-C!L Hltl~cs: iS.SV<.es ~VI­

T~VlAeS

of CoL~~-fLLct

• United Nations Oil for Food Scandal
- The Oil for Food Program was established for
I raq under Chapter VII by UNSC Resolution 986
in order for Iraq to sell oil in exchange food,
medid ne and ot her humanitarian supplies.
- The program was terminated In 2003 in the
wake of the U.S. -led Coalit ion invasion.
- The program had recently plagued with
allegations of fraud, corruption and abuse by
high level UN officials and others as stated by
t he Volcker Investigatory Commission Report.

iV~-te vV~-C!hoV~-C! L t;tltl~cs: issues ~VI­

-

T~VlAe.s

of CoL~~-fL~ct

• U.S. Petition to the U.N. Security Council to
acquire a consensus vote on the issues of
Iraq's regime change and non-compliance
with U.N.S.C. Resolution 687 and its
progeny
• • As easi ly predicted, the U.N.S.C. failed to
reach any consensus
• I nstitutional and procedural flaws precluded
consensus

!111-ten"-aHoV~-aL Hltl~cs:

T~w..es

Issues
of co~~~-flLct

~VI­

f- -

• Issues re: the 2003 Iraq Invasion &
Occupation:
- other options?
- Iraq's sovereignty: "territorial integrity &
political independence?"
- Enemy combatant detentions?
- What does America now owe Iraq?
- Effect on the GWOT?
- U.S. Foreign policy implications?

IV~-teY111-l1hoV~-aL HV!Lcs:

Issues
TLw..es of co~~~-flLct

[111-

HltlLcs: Issues Llllnw..es of Co111-flLct

1111-terlll-atLo~~~-aL

-

I

• United Nations Security Council Resolution
1737 (2006): Chapter VII Iranian Sanctions
- Sanctions based on the failure to observe the call

-

to stop its Uranium enrichment program following
UNSCR 1696.
- calls upon Iran to suspend all work on heavy
water projects including research.
- Banned the supply of nudear-related materials
- Froze assets of key Iranian individuals and
companies related to the enrichment program.

I

1
11\,terll\,li!doll\,/i! L 5tl1 ~cs.: 1
s.s.ues. ~II\,
T~VIA.es.

of CowflLct

• United Nations Security Council Resolution
1747 (2007) : Chapter VII Iranian Sanctions
- In addition to the continued sanctions imposed by
UNSCR 1737, this resolution prohibits conventional
weapon exports.
- It also freezes assets and restricts the travel of an
additional 28 people and organizations, other than
those noted in 1737, who are engaged in Iranian
nuclear proliferation activities. They include the
state owned Bank Sepah and the commanders of
the Revolutionary Guard.

111\,terll\,li!tLoll\,li!L 5tl1Lcs.:

Issues. [11\,

TLVIA.es. of Coll\,flLct
• United Nations Security Council Resolution
1803 (2008): Iranian Sanctions
- To give effect to UNSC decisions by adopting
appropriate measures to persuade Iran to
comply with resolution 1696 (2006), 1737
(2006), 1747 (2007) and w ith the requirements
of the IAEA, and also to constrain Iran's
development of sensitive technologies in support
of its nuclear and missile programmes, until. ..
the Security Council determines that the
objectives of these resolut ions... are met.

I

lll\,teMii!doll\,li!L cthLcs.:
T~VIA.es.

Issues. LV\,

of Coll\,flLct

• United Nations Security Council Resolution
1803 (2008): Iranian Sanctions
- Lists additional individuals and
corporations whose assets shall be
frozen. (13 new individuals have been
added to the previous list; 12 new
corporations have been added.)
- calls for inspection of cargo to and from
Iran, of aircrafts and vessels from
designated shippers and suppliers.

-

1V~-teYV~-IiltLo~~~-lil L stV1Lc:;:

l:;:;tAe:; L~~~­

TLVVce:; of co~~~-flLct
- ·
• Issues re: Iran
• Nuclear weapons development and
proliferation + possible Middle East
nuclear arms race?
• Proxy non-state actors (eg Hezbollah)?
• U.N. Security Council consensus-POA?
• Iran's Sovereignty? Energy? Human
Rights?

• II c;

fnrPinn nnlirv

1
V~-teYV~-Iilti.oV~-aL

7

lsstAe:; i.V~­

stV1i.c:;:

TLVVces of co~~~-flLct
• Iranian Foreign Minister Addressing
the United Nations after the passage
_ _.....,- UNSCR 1747
of

l

I V~-teYV~-IilhOVI-IilL

ctV1i.c:;:

ISStAes

TLVVces of CoV~-flLct

I

1---

• Map of I'JorUi Korea
I

I

~

&

.

I

-

-~

C •UUA

I
I

i:: .StiA

61ia-

_..

-

--

r'

.K""W •
t

kloobc.r.g~~

~~

Ct1'6n;J;:o,•

"''"""
•..Mar • .,..

.._

.......................
• S!n;t~'ea
. W~MO

I"' YO MOYAHG*
N ll#l'll)'o,

•Sorlo'um

·"""""
":\._,. ..,..,....

K;..~-~~~

,Q«

.,··;pi~

.. .

LVI-

I 11\,tevii\,ClhOII\,ClL Stit1~cs: ISSl.{eS ~11\,

T~VV~..es
1

of coll\,fl~ct

• North Korean Nuclear Program : U.N.
Charter Chapter VI & Six- Party Talks
-Goal: To address security concerns and
determine a peaceful solution regarding
North Korea's Nuclear Weapon Program
and their withdrawal from the Nuclear
Non-Proliferation Treaty in 2003.
- Parties: People's Republic of China,
Republic of Korea ~South Korea),
Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea
(North Korea), United States, Japan and
the Russian ~ederation.

111\,tevii\,/Ahoii\,ClL stl1Lcs: lssl.{es ~11\,

TIVV~..es

of Coll\,fl~ct

f--

• North Korean Nuclear Program : U.N.
Charter Chapter VI & Six- Party Talks
-The last phase of talks ended with the
North Koreans agreeing to shut down the
Yongbyon nuclear facility if the other
countries would promise to provide
energy aid in the form of heavy fuel oil.
Thus far there have been problems with
some of the financial transactions, but
the IAEA chief has visited DPR Korea

IV\,teYV\,Clt~OV\,CIL Stl-l ~cs: ISSl.{eS ~11\,

T~VVt.es

of Coll\,fl~ct

I-- -

• North Korean Nuclear Program : U.N .
Charter Chapter VI & Six- Party Talks
-First Stage of Nuclear Deal: Yongbyon
reactor was shut down within 60 days
and 50,000 tons of heavy fuel was
I
supplied by the parties.
-Second Stage: N. Korea agreed to declare
and disarm all of its existing nuclear
facilities in exchange for an additional
950,000 tons of fuel. The process has
reached this stage.

I
I
!

1V~-te rV~-C!t~o ~~~-C! L 5tV\~c-.s:

T~w..es.

lsstA.es ~~~~­

of C-0111-fl-Lct

• Issues re: North Korea
-Nuclear Weapons proliferation and
threats + regional arms race?
- Protection of regional allies: 5. Korea and
Japan?
- N. Korea's sovereignty: "territorial
integrity and political independence?"
-U.N. Security Council consensus?
-U.S. Foreign Policy options?

IV~-terV~-ti!hoV~-ti!L

5tV!Lcs.: IS.S.tA.es. ~~~~­

T~w..es. of co ~~~-fl-Lct

• U.S. Delegate in the 6-Party Talks,
Christopher Hill

I V~-terV~-C!hDV~-Cl L 5tV\~cs.: ISStA.es. LV~­
T Lw..es

-

of Coll\-fl-i.ct

fll\,terll\,l1tl.oii\,Cfl et:V!l.cs: Issues

I

li.VV~.es

LV\,

of Coll\,fLl.ct

-

• Issues re: Somalia
-

Lack of legitimate governance?
Somalia's sovereignty?
Presence of al Qaeda?
Threat of maritime piracy?

-Maritime environmental threat-Toxic
dumping?
- U.S. Foreign Policy options?

lll\,terii\,Cft l.oii\,CI L 5tV!l.cs: Issues
Tl.VV~.es

L
V\,

of coll\,fLl.ct

• Issues re: Yemen
-Yemen government's stability?
- Yemen's sovereignty?
-Presence of al Qaeda?
-Yemen as a bridge f rom the Horn of
Africa to the Arabian peninsula?
- U.S. Foreign Policy options?

I
-

111\,ter ii\,Cftl.oii\,C!L et:V!l.cs: Issues
li.VV~.es

LV\,

of Coll\,fLl.ct

• Bush Administration's Philosophy re:
the Global War on Terror
- The National Security Strategy
(March 06)
• Promote Human Dignity
• Strengthen Alliances for GWOT
• Cooperation to Defuse Regional
Conflicts

;

-

HV![c.s: Issues
T[VVLes of C-o~~~-fl[c.t

1V~-teYV~-lAtLOV~-lill

-

LV~­

• The National Security Strategy ( cont'd)
• Prevent Attacks against U.S. and
Allies
• Prevent Threats to U.S. and Allies
from WMD
.Ignite Global Economic Growth
• Promote Democracy
• Cooperation with Centers of Global
Power

5tltt [cs: 1ssues LV~­
TLVtA..es of C-oV~-flLc.t

1V~-teYV~-CitLOV~-lA l

- -

Pil & Ethics: Jus ad Bellum
• 1. Just Cause
• 2. Competent Authority

• 3.
• 4.
• 5.
• 6.

Right Intention
Public Dedaration
Limited Objectives

Last Resort
• 7. Reasonable Expectation of Success

IV~-tevV~-liltLoV~-tAl HV!Lc.s:

Issues

TLVVLes of e-o~~~-flLc.t
t---

• PIL & Ethics: Jus in Bello

-

• 1. Proportionality: "Military
Necessity"
• 2. Discrimination

I
'
\

-

LV~­

IV~-teYV~-C!t~O""C! L etVI~cs: Issues~""

T~VIA.es

of CowfL~ct

• Application and Enforcement of PIL
-Non-Peaceful Methods of Dispute
Resolution: Armed Force
d . M/L Collective Self Defense (U.N.
Olarter Olapter VII

• 2. U/ L Self Defense (U.N. Olarter Art.

51)
• 3. U/L Anticipatory Self
Defense/ Preemptive War (OL)
•4 lUI "'

.

W ?tr ( <:;t?ttllc:: ? ?)

l""ter""C!hOV~-etL etltl~cs: Issues

i.""

Ti.VIA.es of CoV~-fLLct
---

- ----------------------------------~

PIL & Et hics:
- Non-Peaceful Methods of Dispute
Resolution: Ar med Force
- Self Defense:
•Art. 51 U.N. Charter (Treaty)
• Proportionality & Discrimination
(CIL)
• Aligns with Just War Theory??
.u.s. post-9/11 defensive invasion
of Afghanistan??

l ""teYV\,ClhO V~-C!L etltl~cs: Issues~""

- -

T~V~A.es

of CoV~-fL~ct

PIL & Ethics:
- Non-Peaceful Methods of Dispute
Resolution: Armed Force
- Anticipatory Self Defense/Preemptive War
• Four Elements: Force Initiator is the
Target ; Threat is Imminent and
Overwhelming; Force is Last Resort
• CIL Doctrine: Alignment with Art. 51??
• Alignment with Just War Theory ??
• U.S. 2003 invasion of I raq?? Future
invasions of Somalia?? Yemen??

1
11\-terV\-CltLo V\-C!L Hltl~c.s: Issues ~11\­

T [w..es of CoV\-fLLc.t


• PIL & Ethics:
- Non-Peaceful Methods of Dispute Resolution:
Armed Force
- Preventive War
• Armed Force initiated when ini tiator
believes that war with adversary is
inevitable and overwhelming but not
imminent and that the first strike will bring
decisive victory
• Relies heavily on accurate intelligence ;md
military
• Future invasion of Iran??

IV\-tei'V\-CitLoV\-CIL HltlLcs: Issues LV\nw..es of Coll\-fl~c.t
• Preventive War Issues
•Alignment with Art. 51 ??
• Alignment with Just War Theory??

IV\-tei'V\-CltLoV\-CIL H ltlLc.s: Issues LV\-

T i.w..es of CoV\-fLLc.t
• PIL & Ethics: Jus post Bellum
- Peaceful Dispute Resolution: Use of
Armed Force has ended or is vastly
reduced & Jus post Bellum applies

I
I
I

I

• Responsibility to ensure a Just Peace
• Responsibility for Just Settlement of a
Just War.
• I ssue: Responsibility for Just
Settlement of an Unjust war??

I~Atev~AG!t~o~AG!L ctltl~cs: Issues ~lA

TLVM,es of C.oV\.fl.l.ct
t---·

• PIL & Ethics: Jus post Bellum
-Observance of R.O.L.: Fundamental
International Human Rights Law,
Humanitarian Law & International
Criminal Law
• Establish rights-based constitution
( appropriate legitimate governmental
institutions w/ checks & balances}
• Ensure appropriate participatory governance
• Prosecute perpetrators for WCS, CAH & CAP

I V\,teMClho~AG!L Stltl~cs:

Tl.VM,eS

Issues t.V\,

of C.o~Afl.l.ct

-

' • PIL & Ethics: Jus post Bellum
-Eliminate state reparations and sanctions
to facilitate economic recovery
- Disarm & demilitarize the society at large
- Establish effective military and police to
ensure security
-Establish "civil society" as appropriate

IV\.teMG!tl.o~AG!L

Tl.VM,es
~.

Stltll.cs: Issues l.~A

of C.oV\,fl.~ct

· --------------------------------~

• PIL & Ethics: Jus post Bellum
-Provide high-quality, value centered
education
-Ensure equitable distribution of economic
and societal benefits to facilitate
acceptance of new system
- Execute measured and methodical exit
strategy to ensure continued stability

111\.temC!tLOII\.C!L StV\ ~c.s;: l$$tAes; Lll\.,

rtilll\,es; of Coll\.fLLct
• PIL & Ethics: Jus post Bellum

I
l
I

•Moral Dilemma for the U.S.: Current
and Projected Costs of conflicts in I raq
and Afghanistan versus Jus post
Bellum
• Moral expenditure of funds?

I

111\.temC!tLOII\.CIL Hltt~c.s;: l$$tAe$ Lll\.

TLIIII\,es; of Coll\.fl~c.t

--- ·- ----------------------------------4
• PIL & Ethics: Jus post Bellum

- Stiglitz and Bilmes estimated the cost of
the Iraq conflict will be $3 Trillion
-Compare: WW I, WW II, Korea, Vietnam
- Only WW II cost more

111\.temC!t~OII\.CIL HV\~cs;: l$$ tAe$ ~11\.

-

TLIIII\,eS. of Coll\.fLLct
• Jus post Bellum:

-

-"Every gun that is made, every warship
launched, every rocket fired, signifies in
the final sense a theft from those who
hunger and are not fed, those who are
cold and not clothed. "
- Dwight D. Eisenhower on domestic tradeoffs
during foreign conflicts

-

-

1V~.terV~.CltLOV~.ClL

et11Lcs: IS.s.[,(es LV~.

TL111A..es of CoV~.fl.Lct
• Food Distribution in Afghanistan by
UNHCR

I V~.teYV~.CltLOV~.Cl L etnLcs: IS.S.[,(es LV~.

TL111A..es of CoV~.fl.Lct
• Humanitarian Mission during Iraqi
Freedom

I V~.teYV~.liltLOV~.ClL et11Lcs.: ISS[,(es LV~.

TL111A..es of CoV~.fl.Lct
i-

• Primary Sources-United Nations
- U.N. Charter, Arts. 1-51.
-U.N. Security Council Resolutions

I
I

I
I

• S.C. Res. 1368, U.N. Doc. S/RES/ 1368 (Sept.
12, 2001).
• S.C. Res. 661, U.N. Doc. S/RES/661 (Aug. 6,
1990).
• S.C. Res. 986, U.N. Doc. S/ RES/ 986 (Apr. 14,
1995).

-

I

I11\,terii\,Cihoii\,/A L
T~w..es.

Stv\~cs.:

ls.s.ues. LV\,
of Coll\,fLLct

• Primary Sources- United Nations
- U.N. Security Council Resolutions
• S.C Res. 1737, U.N. Doc. S/RES/ 1737 (Dec.

27, 2006).
• S.C. Res. 1747, U. N. Doc. S/RES/1747 (Mar.
24, 2007).
• S.C Res. 1803, U.N. Doc. S/RES/1803 (Mar.
3, 2008).

111\,terii\,Cihoii\,CI L stV\ Lcs.: Is.s.ues.

LV\,

TLw..es. of coil\,fLLct
• Primary Sources- North Atlantic Treaty
Organization & Organization of
American States
-North Atlantic Treaty, Apr. 4, 1949, 63
Stat. 2241, 34 U.N.T.S. 243.
-Charter of the Organi zation of American
States, Dec. 13, 1951, 119 U.N.T.S. 3.

l

lll\,terii\,CitLoii\,CIL stV!~cs.:

ls.s.ues. LV\,

TLw..es. of coll\,fL!.ct

-

• Sources: Secondary
- Joseph E. Stiglitz & Linda J. Bilmes, The Three Trillion
Dollar War· The True Olsts of the I@Q Conflict W.W.
Morton (2008).
- Paul Olrlstopher, The Ethics of War an!l Peoce- An
Introduction to Legal and Moral Issues, Prentice Hall

(2004).
- Mark R. Amstutz, I nternational Ethics· Olncep\s. Tbeories
and cases in Global Politics, Rowman and Littlefoeld Pub.

(2005).
- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "War,"
http://platoistanford.edu/entrieslwar, last visited 2/27/10

-

l\1\-teY\1\-CltLo\1\-ClL etltl ~c.s: r.s.slAe.s L\1\-

TLVlAe.s

of C.o\1\-fLLct

r--



-

QUESTIONS 7??

-

Files

Collection

Citation

Robert L. Summers, “CLE: 2010: International Ethical Issues in Times of Conflict: Just War - Afganistan Iraq and North Korea,” St. Mary's Law Digital Repository, accessed October 21, 2017, http://lawspace.stmarytx.edu/item/STMU_HomecomingCLE2010Summers.

Document Viewer